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Q&A with Chuka Umunna, Shadow Business Secretary

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Chuka Umunna found on his first trip to China that Chinese officials and business people could not fathom why the UK should want to pull out of the EU
丘卡•乌穆纳首次访华之旅见闻:中国官员和企业家猜不透英国意欲退出欧盟的原因

You were elected as an MP in 2010 and now Shadow Business Secretary, tell us the secret of your meteoric rise.
你在2010年时就当选国会议员,现在又担任影子商务大臣,讲一下你迅速脱颖而出的秘诀吧。

It is a huge honour to serve the constituency that I grew up in and love, never mind to serve as Shadow Business Secretary. Every day I do this job I recognise what a privilege it is. It enables me to see the brilliant things all our businesses and those who work in them are doing and to give them our support, as I did on the recent Chinese for Labour delegation to China.
为我爱的曾经生活的选区服务,是巨大的荣誉,即使担任影子商务大臣,也不觉得累。我每天工作时都意识到这是何等的荣幸。这个岗位能让我见证我们的商业界和投身其中的人们所作出的杰出成就,还能让我为他们提供支持,就像我为最近这次华人工党访华代表团所做的一样。

But, being in this role also comes with the responsibility to do all I can to ensure we get a Labour government elected in 2015 with Ed Miliband as our Prime Minister. That way we can make the One Nation country we want to build a reality – a country with mutuality as its cornerstone, where we have shared opportunities and shared responsibilities to empower people to achieve their aspirations and realise their dreams; and, where people cannot look after themselves, we do not throw them on the scrap heap as others would do, we care for them.
但是,在这个职位上也有责任去竭尽所能,要在2015年赢得一个埃德•米利班德出任首相的工党政府。只有这样我们才能实现建设"同一个国家"的目标,一个以共同的目标作为基石的国家,一个能够分享机会、分担责任并激发人们实现理想的国家,一个当人们自身难保时,我们不遗弃他们,反而要关爱他们的国家。

You are one of the youngest in the Shadow Cabinet, what can we do to encourage more young British Chinese to engage in politics?
你是影子内阁中最年轻的成员,我们怎样才能让更多的英国华裔青年投身政治活动?

We have to get away from the adversarial, bear-pit of that Westminster has become, typified by PMQs. This turns many people off – particularly young people and women - and isn't the way we should be doing our politics. You can argue about your values, your politics and your policies - I'm not calling for sterility and of course passion is crucial - but it is how you do politics that also matters. And has got to change, which is why I've always been a convinced constitutional reformer.
我们必须从首相答辩那种典型的相互敌视、挖陷阱的议会活动中摆脱出来。这些弊病让很多人,特别是年轻人和女性失去了对政治的热情,这不应当是我们进行政治建设的方式。你可以为价值、政治和政策去争论,因为我不主张碌碌无为,热情当然很重要,但是开展政治活动的方式也很重要。这一点已经到了非改不可的时候了,这就是为什么我一直是坚定的宪政改革派。

One way of getting more young people into politics is by ensuring there are people who look like them holding elected office. The fact that Paul Boateng, Bernie Grant, Diane Abbott and Keith Vaz were in Parliament when I was growing up inspired me to believe that, if I wanted, one day I might be able to do the same. So I'm pleased we have the likes of Sarah Owen standing for Parliament in Hastings and Cecilia Love as councillor in Cardiff, both of Chinese descent. We need to ensure we have many more from a Chinese background standing for elected office at all levels for Labour.
一个能让更多年轻人参与政治的方法是确保有一些与他们面貌相仿的人当选。在我成长时期,看到Paul Boateng, Bernie Grant, Diane Abbott 和Keith Vaz成为议员,激励着我,让我相信如果我愿意,有一天我或许也能有此成就。所以,我很高兴看到萨•欧文(Sarah Owen)竞选黑斯廷区(Hastings)的国会议员以及西塞利亚•勒弗(Cecilia Love)参选卡迪夫的地方议员,她们都是华裔的后代。我们要确保在工党的各个层面都有更多华裔背景的人参加竞选。

You visited China recently, tell us about the trip and how can British business companies do more in China?
你最近去了中国,告诉我们这次访问如何,英国企业如何才能在中国取得更多建树?

This visit, my first to China, was a business delegation that I led and was organised by Chinese for Labour. It focused on strengthening and developing trade links with China and the delegation included business people representing a wide variety of UK businesses.
这次访问是我第一次访问中国,这是一个华人工党组织并由我率队的商业代表团。主要的目的是加强和发展英国和中国的贸易关系,代表团由来自英国各界的企业家组成。

The visit built on the delegations I've previously led to high-tech businesses in Israel and the trade mission for London Chamber of Commerce & Industry and UKTI to West Africa. I and my Shadow Business team don't see promoting British business solely as the role of Government – we should promote UK businesses from Opposition too! The challenge of boosting exports has to be a 'national mission'. The UK has the largest goods trade deficit of any EU member state and Germany exported to China six times as many goods, by value, than the UK in 2012. So we have got to boost exports to China.
这次访问是建立在此前我带领的赴以色列高科技企业代表团和伦敦商会及英国贸易投资署赴西非贸易代表团的基础之上的。我和我的团队认为推广英国的企业不仅仅是政府的职责,我们作为在野党也要这样做!我们应当把提振出口贸易视作一个国家任务。英国在欧盟国家中对华贸易逆差是最大的,而2012年德国向中国出口的货物总值是英国的六倍之多。所以我们必须提升对华的出口贸易。

The delegation looked at the opportunities for British firms and promoting the British Brand and British business. I had meetings with leading businesses working in China and heard their experiences at first hand - like Rolls Royce and Standard Chartered, which are centring their Asian operations in China. I also met with the UK Ambassador, his team and UKTI, and saw the excellent support work they are giving to UK businesses.
代表团考察了英国企业在中国的机会,并宣传了英国的品牌和企业。我会见了英国驻中国的龙头企业并听取了他们的第一手经验,比如劳斯莱斯和渣打银行,它们都把其亚洲业务的重心放在中国。我还会见了英国驻中国大使及他的团队和英国贸易投资署,见证了他们为英国企业所做的出色的支持工作。

I had the honour of meeting with the Vice President of China, Li Yuanchao. I also made the case for British firms to the other Chinese Government and officials I met including at the Ministry of Commerce, and Zong Guoying, the Vice Mayor of Tianjin, one of China's fastest growing cities and a centre for advanced manufacturing.
我荣幸地会见了中国国家副主席李源潮。我在与其他中国政府部门和官员的会谈中都为英国企业界宣传,这其中包括商务部的官员、天津副市长宗国英。天津市是中国发展最快的城市之一,已成为高科技制造中心。

Similarly I met with Zhu Xinli, Executive Chairman of the China Entrepreneurs Club, and Gao Xiqing, President of the China Investment Corporation, which has a number of investments in Britain, and China Mobile which has 750 million customers and is leading player in telecommunications in China.
同样,我还见到了中国企业家俱乐部执行主席朱新礼,中国投资有限责任公司总裁高西庆,他们公司在英国有一些投资项目。我还会见了中国移动公司的代表,这家有着7亿5千万用户的企业是中国电信领域的领军企业。

Whilst there I took part in the '2013 Cooperation and Understanding Dialogue' in Beijing as the British representative, an event which included political figures from across the globe including the former President Obasanjo of Nigeria.
在北京我作为英国的代表出席了"2013理解与合作对话活动",包括尼日利亚前总统奥巴桑乔(Obasanjo)在内的各国政治家出席了此次活动。

There is no doubt that China is hugely important to the UK economy and this will only grow as China is set to become the largest economy in the world. Undoubtedly the British brand is strong - we have world leading firms, world leading products, and world leading expertise - but we need to do more to get firms exporting into China and benchmark against the best.
毫无疑问,中国对英国的经济而言是非常重要的,而且随着中国成为世界第一大经济体,它的重要性只会与日俱增。同样确定的是,英国的品牌效应是强大的,我们有世界顶级的公司,全球领先的产品和一流的专业性,但是我们仍需要进一步增加对中国的出口,向最高的标准看齐。

There are lots of opportunities for UK businesses particularly in sectors like healthcare, finance, and the creative industries (which we know, despite having global brand recognition, is not prominent enough in UK trade missions).
在诸如医疗保健、金融和创意产业等很多领域,英国企业都有很多机会(尽管我们知道英国在上述领域有着全球知名度,但英国商贸代表团中来自这些领域的企业家数量并不突出)。

City to city links will become increasingly important too and we heard that places like Tianjin are looking for a UK city to twin with.
城市与城市之间的联系正在变得愈发重要,我们了解到像天津这样的城市正在寻求与英国的城市开展合作伙伴关系。

There are some real successes and the UK is doing well in places but we could do even better. There is certainly some UK trade with China that is not picked up by the trade figures and it is likely some big deals on oil and gas are going to come through shortly which might inflate UK success and mask the underlying challenges, which should not be forgotten. Our comparator should be Germany - we need to be equally ambitious as they are in China.
我们已有成功的案例,而且英国在一些领域做的不错,但是我们还能做得更好。一些英中贸易没有被计入贸易指标,可能不久英中两国在石油和天然气领域将有一些成功的大项目,这可能会放大英国的成就,从而掩盖潜在的困难,我们不应忽视这点。我们的参照者是德国,在对华贸易方面我们需要像德国一样雄心勃勃。

What are the challenges facing China and where will China be in 10 years' time? What should our relationship be with China?
中国面临的挑战是什么?在未来的10年中,中国将何去何从?我们应当怎样构建与中国的关系?

The progress in China has been immense and I saw some of this in the huge new city being created in Tianjin. But there is also a recognition that significant challenges are now coming into view, similar in many respects to what we have here in the UK and other developed economies, including how people can share in progress, share in wealth creation, and we ensure people are not left behind. Of course, the political system is very different and the Chinese do things differently, but there is no doubt they are looking ahead at the challenges and planning for them.
中国已经取得了巨大的进步,我在天津这座崭新的大城市中看到了这样的成就。但是,人们知道严峻的挑战正在出现,一些问题同我们英国和其他发达国家遇到的相似,这包括人民如何分享发展的成果,如何分享和参与财富创造,以及要确保人民不被发展起来的社会所遗弃。当然,两国的政治制度非常不同,中国人有着不同的行事方式,但可以确定的是他们看到了这些挑战,正着手应对。

A primary focus is a more sustainable economy. China is hugely concerned about growing in a sustainable way, not least because of the smog in their big cities – I experienced this first hand in Beijing. Our first day was a sunny clear day and we were able to see the mountains surrounding Beijing. But, the following day the smog set in and we were told just what a rare sight it was to actually see the mountains – it is usually quite grey. Indeed a British businessman who has been working in China for most of his life in a leading global UK company said he will leave soon because he said there is now a five year reduction in life expectancy and he does not want to put his young children through that.
其中一个主要的问题就是经济发展的可持续性。中国非常关注可持续的发展道路,这不仅仅是因为大城市中的雾霾天气,我在北京对此有亲身体验。我们在北京的第一天天气晴朗,我们可以看到北京周边的山峦。但是,转天就有了雾霾,我们被告知能看到山峦的天气难得一见,天空通常是灰色的。一个已经在中国工作了几乎大半辈子的英国商务人士说,他很快就要离开中国,因为他说这样的天气会让人短命五年,他不想让自己的小孩经历这样的环境。

But, while there are these challenges, we also heard that this desire for more sustainable growth provides huge opportunities for UK companies. In fact Britain, through passing the Climate Change Act under the last Labour Government, is seen as a global leader and with huge expertise in this area.
但是,当这些问题出现时,我们也听到对于可持续发展的渴求给英国公司带来了巨大的机会。事实上,英国在上届工党政府时期通过了气候变化法案,被世人看作是世界上在此问题上具有丰富经验的领导国家。

There is still a huge potential for China to grow, albeit the headline rate of growth rates are slowing. We discussed the increasing urbanisation of China, with the focus shifting to the expansion and development of second and third tier cities. There are opportunities for links to Britain here too.
尽管中国的发展速度正在放缓,但中国仍然具备巨大的增长潜力。我们讨论了中国持续的城市化进程正在向二、三线城市扩张。这方面也为英国提供了机遇。

What must also be appreciated - and the visit helped us do this – is the scale of change and development in China. Just to highlight one stat - the estimated increase in graduates in China in 2020 compared to 2010 will be nearly the same as the total number of graduates in 2020 in the US and EU combined.
这次访问让我们发现中国那些必须要予以肯定的成绩,就是中国改变和发展的规模。这里只提一个数据,预计到2020年中国大学毕业生比2010年增加的人数将是美国和欧盟2020年毕业生人数的总和。 

China is also concerned about the social impacts of growth and how this is shared. I was particularly struck by what Zhu Xinli, Executive Chairman of the China Entrepreneurs Club, who went from a poor rural family to becoming a billionaire, said to us: 'the task is to make the poor richer, and the rich more responsible.'
中国也在关注发展带来的社会影响以及如何分享发展成果。我被中国企业家俱乐部执行主席朱新礼的话打动,从一个贫困农村的少年成为亿万富翁的他对我们说:"中国的任务是要让穷人致富,让富人有担当"。

And finally there is the challenge of creating a welfare state. We heard about some of the developments in healthcare taking place – and again opportunities for Britain to help with this - but also the development of state enterprises, the wealth being created and the reinvestment in the welfare of society for the longer-term.
最后,创建福利社会也是一个挑战。我们听说医疗领域已经发生了一些积极的改变,这又是让英国得以介入的机会。此外还有国有企业的改革,从长远的利益出发将国企创造的财富对社会福利系统进行再投资。

In terms of our relationship with China, of course we need to maintain strong links. It was why I was so pleased to lead this delegation and to build and deepen understanding. I must pay tribute to all the tireless work Sonny Leong does and to Lady Katy Blair too, both in Chinese for Labour.
关于我们与中国的关系,我们当然需要保持这种紧密的联系,所以我很高兴能带领这次的代表团访华并建立和加深双方之间的理解。华人工党的梁辛尼先生不辞辛劳为此次访问做了大量准备工作,我必须向他和谢锦霞女士致敬。

China is looking at its role in the world - we as a country too. It is patently clear - and I discussed this during my visit with the people we met - that for the UK, being part of the EU is going to be more important than ever. We are a trading country and this means ensuring we get a return from our innovation and intellectual property from music to scientific development. Protection and enforcement of this is going to be ever more necessary and we have much more power in this regard by being part of the EU, China's primary trading partner, than we do being alone. Those arguing that we should be trading more but want us to pull out should take note - that position is not based in the reality of the challenges we face ahead. I found that so many of the Chinese officials and business people we met could not fathom why we should want to pull out of the EU given these benefits which it brings.
中国正关注着她在当今世界所发挥的角色,我们英国也是如此。正如我在此行中与人会谈时所讨论的,对于英国而言,成为欧盟的一份子比以往任何时候都更加重要,这一点是确定无疑的。我们是一个贸易国家,作为欧盟成员才能确保我们在音乐和科技领域的创新和知识产权能够得到回报。知识产权的保护和执法正变得愈发重要,而作为欧盟成员国比起英国独自行事更有力地推动与此有关的进展。那些声称要发展贸易但又要求我们退出欧盟的人要注意了,这样的态度与我们面临着挑战的现实是不符的。我发现在很多中国官员和企业家看来,考虑到欧盟带来的好处,他们对于英国要退出欧盟的想法是如此的不解。

China will be the greatest economy in less than four years', and a global powerhouse, learning the Chinese language would put our young people at an advantageous position, do you think our schools should make the teaching and learning of Chinese as part of the curriculum?
中国在不到四年的时间内就将成为世界最大的经济体和一个世界强国,学习中文将让我们的年轻人处在更有利的位置,你觉得我们的学校是否应该将中文的教学列入课程表?

We absolutely need more people learning Mandarin in our schools and it will be increasingly important.
我们肯定需要更多的人在学校里学习中文,这将变得越来越重要。

So too will be developing links between our two countries. We need to leverage our huge global links across the world including in Africa where China is increasingly playing a role.
发展与中国的关系也同样重要,如今中国在非洲扮演着愈发重要的角色,我们也需要充分发挥英国在包括非洲在内的全球影响力。

And we need the Chinese tourists and business people to be welcomed to Britain and to see what we have to offer. It is not clear that this Government has fully recognised some of the long-term problems it is storing up with the approach it has taken.
我们要欢迎来到英国的中国游客和商务人士并尽力为他们提供服务。但我们尚不清楚本届政府是否充分认识到了其所采取的措施所带来的长期问题。

Quick fire:
快问快答:

X Factor or Strictly Come Dancing? X Factor
你爱看X元素还是舞林大会?X元 

The Apprentice or Dragon's Den? Dragon's Den
你爱看学徒还是龙穴创业?龙穴创业 

Chicken Chow Mein or Chicken Tikka Masala? Both (though not at the same time!)
爱吃鸡肉炒面还是香烧鸡柳?两个都爱(但不能一起吃)

Wine or Beer? Depends – wine with food, a nice cold beer in the sunshine.
爱吃红酒还是啤酒?要看怎么喝,红酒配菜,晒太阳喝冰啤。

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